Accident:any unplanned event that results in injury or ill-health to people, or damages equipments, property or materials but where there was a risk of harm.

Active failure:a human error or violation the effects of which become evident almost immediately.

Barrier:any measure taken to protect people or property from hazards, including physical guards but also administrative measures such as rules and procedures. Sometimes referred to as safeguards, defences or risk control systems.

Hazard:anything with the potential for human injury or adverse health, damage to assets or environmental impact. See risk and risk assessment.

HPLC (event):high probability, low consequence (event). Also see LPHC

human error:system failures attributable to people but not including violations.

Human failure:a term used to collectively refer to both errors and violations.

Human-machine system:a system in which technology and human beings have specific functions but work together towards common goals.

Immediate cause (of an incident):the most obvious reason why the incident occurred e.g. The guard is missing, the employee slips etc. There may be several immediate causes identified in one adverse event.

Incident:an unplanned or uncontrolled event or sequence of events that has the potential to cause injury, ill-health or damage. Also referred to as a near miss.

Lapse:when a person forgets to do something due to a failure of attention/concentration or memory.

Latent failure (or latent error):a human error or violation whose effects can lie dormant in a system for a long time.

LPHC (event):low probability, high consequence (event).

Major accident hazard:hazards with the potential for major accident consequences, e.g. ship collisions, dropped objects, helicopter crashes as well as process safety hazards. Major accidents are potentially catastrophic and can result in multiple injuries and fatalities, as well as substantial economic, property, and environmental damage.

Occupational safety hazard:personal or occupational safety hazards give rise to incidents such as slips, falls, and vehicle accidents that primarily affect one individual worker for each occurrence(noting, of course, that they could affect many people). They contrast with process safety hazards and major accident hazards in that the latter have the potential to affect a very large number of people including those off-site.


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