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Module 8: Organisational Commitments in Reducing Accidents

This module was prepared by the Disaster Management Institute Bhopal in cooperation with the Indo-German bilateral cooperation - InWEnt Capacity Building International and GTZ-ASEM.

Download the brochure of module 8 - Organisational Commitments in Reducing Accidents
It has been estimated that up to 90% of all workplace accidents have human error as a cause by a number of studies. The term 'human failure' is used in this module to refer to errors and violations, newspaper headlines tend to use 'human error' as a blanket term for both.


1. Contents

Introduction to Emergency Management Plans
Organisational risk model
       Model of system migration
       Second model
       Error control mechanism in process industries

The occupational safety and health (OSH) management system in the organization
Indian initiatives
OS and H System vs incident learning
Exercise 1
Exercise 2

2. Glossary


A systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which defined criteria are fulfilled. This does not necessarily mean an independent external audit (an auditor or auditors from outside the organization).


A person or an organization providing services to an employer at the employer's worksite in accordance with agreed specifications, terms and conditions.


Any physical or legal person that employs one or more workers.


An inherent property of a substance, agent, source of energy or situation having the potential of causing undesirable consequences.

Hazard assessment:

A systematic evaluation of hazards.


Accidents and/or near misses. Unsafe occurrence arising out of or in the course of work where no personal injury is caused.

Major accidents:

Any unplanned, sudden event which causes or is liable to cause serious injury to people or damage to buildings, plant, material or the environment.


A company, operation, firm, undertaking, establishment, enterprise, institution or association, or part of it, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration. For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operating unit may be defined as an organization.


The likelihood that a considered occurrence will take, place.


A combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event and the severity of injury or damage to the health of people caused by this event.

Risk assessment:

The value judgment of the significance of the risk, identified by a risk analysis taking into account any relevant criteria. The process of evaluating the risks to safety and health arising from hazards at work.

Risk management:

Actions taken to achieve or improve the safety of the installation and its operation.


Any person who performs work, either regularly or temporarily, for an employer.


Physical area where workers need to be or to go due to their work which is under the control of an employer.

3. Conclusion

The organization's top management shall at intervals review the OH&S management system to ensure continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness. The management review process shall ensure that the necessary information is collected to allow management to carry out this evaluation. This review shall be documented.
The management review shall consider:

  1. the overall performance of the OH&S management systems;
  2. the performance of individual elements of the systems;
  3. the finding of audits;
  4. internal and external factors, such as changes in organizational structure, legislation pending, introduction of new technology, etc, and shall identify what action is necessary to remedy any deficiencies;
  5. adequacy of corrective and preventive action; and
  6. compliance of all regulatory provisions.

4. References

  • Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems ILO-OSH 2001 - Annie Rice, ILO Sub-regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe
  • Ramussen, J., Human errors: a taxonomy for describing human malfunctions in industrial installations. Journal of Occupational Accidents, v.4, p.311-35, 1982.
  • Ramussen, J., Risk management in a dynamic society: a modelling problem. Safety Science, v.27, n.2/3, p.183-213, 1997.
  • Ramussen, J.; Svedung, J. Proactive risk management in a dynamic society. Karlstad: R√†ddningsverket/Swedish Rescue Services Agency, 2000.
  • Reason, J. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997.
  • Reason, J.; Hobbs, A. Managing maintenance error. A practical guide. Hampshire: Ashgate, 2003


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