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2. JSA and risk management hierarchy

The selection and application of a particular risk assessment tool depends on the complexity of the issue being assessed and the design and expected risk management deliverables of an organisation.

A JSA is one of several risk assessment tools that help to identify job or task hazards and unwanted events with the aim of ensuring the resultant risk in a job is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This is done through the selection and implementation of appropriate controls.

Risk assessment tools that are commonly used in the industry include:

  • Quantitative Risk Assessment (various methods) (QRA)
  • Bow Tie Analysis (BTA)
  • Fault / Logic Tree Analysis (FTA/LTA)
  • Event Tree Analysis (ETA)
  • Energy Barrier Analysis (EBA)
  • Consequence Analysis (CA)
  • Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)
  • Hazard Analysis (HAZAN)
  • Hazard and Operability Assessment (HAZOP)
  • Failure Modes, Effects (and Criticality) Analysis (FMEA/FMECA)
  • Human Error Analysis (HEA)
  • Layers of Protection analysis (LOPA)
  • Workplace Risk Assessment and Control (WRAC)
  • Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
  • Stop, Think, Identify, Plan, and Proceed (Take 5)

A JSA is a basic and low level risk assessment tool and sits above the individual, informal risk assessment tools. It is used for routine and non-routine job and task planning to help develop effective safe work expectations such as guidelines, procedures, standard work instructions (SWIs) and job plans and review tasks and the level of risk where adequate procedures or SWIs are not available.

The above figure illustrates the levels or layers of possible application of risk assessment tools. It should be noted that within each layer, the application of risk assessment methods varies depending on a number of issues. These include the complexity of the issue, the nature of the assessment, the detail and outputs required and other factors. Within each layer, several methods and tools may be used.


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