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Spatial Planning/Information Systems for Industrial Disaster Risk Management - Technical Session 2

Themes and Objectives of the Technical Session 2

Hazard, Risk and Consequence Analysis

Risk management decisions taken on basis of hazard identification, physical effect modelling like CAMEO, ARCHIE, MARPLOT etc and on-site vulnerability assessment tools which helps in ensuring adequate safety systems, preventive controls and actions into Disaster Management Plans/Environmental Management Plans and integration including locating control room, health centre, assembly etc based on suitable spatial criteria.
Objectives: Discuss tools, techniques, methodologies and existing models and approaches and their suitability in different conditions; highlight their inherent limitations.

Industrial Siting and Land-use planning

Multi-hazard risk assessment and vulnerability criteria for site assessment and land-use planning helps reduce the disaster risk of industrial/chemical as well as Na-Tech disasters, and provides necessary guidelines for locating emergency response resources
Objectives: Discuss approaches and practices on industrial siting in areas prone to multiple hazards; show gaps in the existing systems and implementation strategies.

GIS based emergency planning

Geoinformatics based emergency response system, offers efficient handling of large amount of data in form of maps in computer based storage and offers easy access to emergency information on spatial and non-spatial aspects of facility, site, affected population, emergency resource, etc. in off-site emergency context
Objectives: Discuss the role of GIS based models and web-GIS tools and emergency planning, preparedness and response.

Accident information and reporting system

External data required for risk analysis, viz. equipment failure, meteorological data, geographical information, and rapid access of information on incidence of accident (two-way response enabled with query service, enhances the capacity of disaster reduction and efficient response
Objectives: Discuss web enabled systems and satellite based systems for rapid transit of information in case of a major accident; show ways for developing systematic data related to chemical, industrial and transportation accidents.

Accepted Contributions - Abstracts

Ecosystem Approach to Flood Resilience

Approach to Land-use planning at Major Hazard Sites in Germany
Dr. Christian Jochum (on behalf of GIZ)
The European Seveso II directive, which covers major hazard sites, regulates spatial planning. There shall be appropriate safety distances between those sites and sensitive neighbourhood like residential areas. In Germany the Commission on Process Safety, which advises the German Federal Government, has issued a guidance on land-use planning. It covers the planning of industrial zones, for which the concrete usage is not yet known (greenfield developments), as well (and even more important in Germany) developments in the neighbourhood of existing major hazard sites.

The guidance recommends certain assumptions to calculate safety distances. It takes into account toxicity, thermal radiation and explosion pressure and gives the figures for important, representative substances. On reaching or exceeding these distances, it may be generally assumed that the effects of a major accident will not lead to a serious hazard for the population. To cover a wide range of possible installations for greenfield planning the assumptions are conservative. For planning purposes around an existing major hazard site a more specific approach is possible. Whereas some European countries apply quantitative risk assessment for this purpose, Germany uses a deterministic approach. If the “greenfield safety distances” cannot be met, “credible worst case” scenarios have to be defined on a case by case basis. Consequence assessments then lead to more specific (and generally shorter) safety distances.

Experience in Germany shows that a critical precondition for effective land-use planning is a good cooperation between the different authorities responsible for spatial planning and environmental safety.

As many industrial zones in Europe traditionally are in densely populated areas planning tools cannot solve all existing problems. Relocation either of hazardous installations or sensitive neighbourhood is rarely possible, so that here the focus is on improved safety measures and emergency preparedness.

Geographical Information System (GIS) based Emergency Planning and Response System
S.S.Gahlout, Deputy Director General, National Informatics Centre, New Delhi, gahlout@nic.in
Arpita Gupta, Scientist D, National Informatics Centre, New Delhi, arpita@nic.in

Geographical Information System (GIS) based Emergency Planning and Response System has been developed for Major Cluster of Industries in selected industrialized States in the Country. Project is sponsored by Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India, which is nodal ministry for handling chemical disasters in the country. Project is developed by National Informatics Center (NIC), Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India along with expert consulting organizations - M/s Associated Consulting Engineers, Technosafe Consultants and IRG Consultants. System has been developed as a complete software package comprising of GIS tools and district databases. The program is user-friendly and can be used along with district level offsite emergency plan not only for planning and mock trials of major chemical emergencies but also during actual emergency.
In phase I the project is spread over four major industrialized states in the country viz. Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh . Twenty districts were identified based on large number of Major Accident Hazard (MAH) industries to include in this project. These districts covered were Kutchh, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bharuch, Surat and Valsad in Gujarat, Nasik, Thane, Mumbai, Pune, Raigad and Ratnagiri in Maharashtra Tiruvallur, Chennai and Salem in Tamil Nadu, Rangareddy, Medak, East Godavari, West Godavari and Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. In phase II the project is spread over ten major industrialized states in the country viz. Punjab, Delhi, Haryana , Rajasthan, Karnataka, Assam, West Bengal ,Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala . Twenty one districts were identified based on large number of Major Accident Hazard (MAH) industries to include in this project. These districts are, Panipat in Haryana, Alwar and Jaipur in Rajasthan, Delhi, Ghaziabad and Bulandshahar in Uttar Pradesh, Ropar and Hoshiarpur in Punjab, Dhar and Bhind Madhya Pradesh, Bongaigaon and Guwahati in Assam Bangalore (rural and urban), Mysore and Mangalore in Karnataka Ernakulam in Kerela, Burdwan, Hooghli, 24 Parganas (North and South), Kolkatta and Howrah in West Bengal. Latest information was collected from Directorate of Factories of each state to identify MAH industries to be covered as part of this project. Data on each MAH industry was collected through a well-designed questionnaire and visits to industrial units. Data collected pertain to chemical data - type of chemicals, quantities, storage containers, storage conditions, etc. and response data - PPEs, medical facilities, fire fighting facilities, vehicles, etc. for each MAH unit separately. For all the Forty identified districts, data was collected for “First Responders” and “Sensitive Area” district wise. First Responders include Police, Fire Service and Medical Service (Government as well as Private). Relevant data was collected with respect to contact information, facilities available to combat chemical emergencies, etc. such as fire tenders, BA sets, etc. with fire department, burn and chemical poisoning facilities with hospitals, etc. In addition, a separate exercise requiring extensive fieldwork was undertaken to mark the locations of MAH industries, first responders and sensitive areas in terms of Latitude and Longitude values so that they can be located on geo-referenced digitized base maps. Such exercise was accomplished with the help of handset GPS (Global Positioning System). probable hazard zone, location of first responders (Police, Fire and Medical Services), amenities and sensitive areas. The aspect of continuity in display of areas for respective districts has also been considered while identifying the toposheets. All the essential features have been digitized to develop base maps in different layers to which spatial data can be attached. Field data collected with the help of GPS pertaining to location of MAH industries and first responders and other sensitive areas have been superimposed on digitized base maps in separate layers. Mosaicing and customization of digitized districts maps has been done in order to get seamless maps of each industrial pocket with an extent to cover all the MAH industries along with MCL scenarios, police stations, fire stations and hospitals. Data on all the chemicals stored at MAH industries has been compiled. Based on the MCL scenarios computer modelling has been done using ALOHA and ARCHIE for consequence analysis. Outcome is made compatible to complete software package and for display on digitized maps. Outcome of all the relevant scenario are stored in data base in the form of shape files and can be displayed on digitized maps in separate layers as per the user's requirement. Users can view the district map on their screens - these are digitized maps in layers superimposed on relevant sets of SOI topo sheets for ease of use. These GIS maps contain all the relevant data with respect of location of MAH units and first responders, chemical and response data, possible accident scenarios, hazard zone under each scenario, etc. User can customize the view based on choice of layers. Hazard zone in case of toxic scenarios can be viewed with respect to user input wind direction as well as a buffer to cater to complete hazard zone. Fire/explosion scenarios shall be depicted as circular buffer zone around the point of accident.
Key words MAH units, Emergency Planning and response, Hazard Zone.

Vulnerability Assessment of an oil storage terminal using multi temporal satellite data: A study of IOC, Sitapura, Jaipur
Mr. B.D Bharath, Mr. B.S. Sokhi,& Ms. Shreya Roy, Human Settlement Analysis Division, IIRS, Dehradun, hi_rumpa@yahoo.co.in

Fires in the form of Flash Fires, Pool Fires, Jet Fires, Explosions are some of the most common types of accidents in oil storage terminals handling petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. Thermal Radiation from Fire, Blast Overpressure from Explosion are the major types of threat involved in this type of accident. The nature of vulnerability also depends on the type of the substance involved, its vapour pressure, rate of volatilization, flash point, flammability limits, boiling point, molecular weight, chemical composition as well as the micro-climatic conditions like atmospheric stability, mixing height, wind speed, wind direction, rain wash etc of the site.
A major accident involving Motor Spirit Vapour Cloud Explosion and Fire occurred at Indian Oil Corporation’s Petroleum Oil Lubricants Terminal, Sitapura, Jaipur on October 29, 2009. There were 11 petroleum storage tanks in the IOC terminal that includes 5 for MS and 3 each for High Speed Diesel (HSD) and Kerosene with a stock capacity of 60,000 KL of petroleum products.
The project was attempted to utilize coarse resolution multi temporal satellite data like Terra MODIS to visualize post hazard smoke plume, to identify the most vulnerable zones with medium to high resolution satellite imagery of LISS III/IV as well as in ALOHA, a software developed by USEPA which uses chemical data, metereological conditions, nature of accident as an input, to give threat/ vulnerable zones as an output and finally integrating them in GIS environment to prepare a vulnerability zonation map..

Areas within 500 to 700 meters from the IOC storage terminals were the most vulnerable zones as predicted by ALOHA and facilities beyond 700 m up to 2km suffered glass window pane breakages. The worst case scenario was run for full capacity with highest ambient temperature recorded and it was found that had the accident occurred in that condition then the dense areas of Pratap Nagar would have been highly affected.

These types of studies can provide a good insight for the decision makers to identify the possible threat zones from hazards like fire, explosions which can be used as an input before siting any storage installations handling flammable products like gasoline, diesel and kerosene.

Application of dense gas dispersion modelling and Consequence analysis of industrial hazard scenarios in spatial planning

Dr. Asit K Patra, Disaster Management Institute, P. B. No. 563, Paryavaran Parisar, E-5 Arera Colony, Bhopal. asitkpatro@gmail.com

Consequence analyses due to accidental two-phase superheated release from containers stored in industries play vital role in spatial/off-site emergency management planning. The results of dense gas dispersion modelling and effective analyses of loss scenarios can be applied to strengthen and modify the administrative, legislative and spatial planning aspects required in preparedness and response stages. The present paper deals with the worst-case release scenarios associated with bulk storages of flammable and toxic chemicals including underground pipeline transportation of natural gas. Inferences of these analyses are expressed in terms of the actions/measures to be taken by the administration (off-site), on-site plant management, required changes in relevant codes/rules etc. Special recommendations have been given on the utilization of these results in strengthening infrastructure of an Emergency Control Centre (ECC) suitable for effective control and coordination of activities during chemical/industrial disasters. Proper application of analysis results in consultation with state Town & Country planning department/Municipal corporation/village panchayat would not only help in allocating/demarcating land for industrial estates or for residential or for other purposes, but also can avert Bhopal/IOCL Jaipur Fire type off-site casualties.
Keywords : Consequence Analysis, off-site emergency, on-site plant management

Risk Management Information System – a GIS enabled tool for managing chemical risks at Maximum Accident Hazard Industry Clusters in India
Mr. Debanjan Bandyopadhyay, PhD Student, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Netherlands, email: dbandyopadhyay@itc.nl
Mr. Nilanjan Paul, Manager – GIS & IT Solutions, SENES Consultants India, email: npaul@senesindia.com

Increasingly, all over the world, the need is expressed for integrated information system tools that can assist in effective management of industrial accidents originating from hazardous facilities. A number of scientific and commercially available computerized models currently exist which can simulate potential risk scenarios like a toxic release, fire or explosion and predict resulting end-point effect distances. Other tools can spatially represent the area at risk by overlaying an accident scenario footprint on a map to aid the end-user in better visualizing the spatial extent of risk. However, such modelling tools are seldom closely coupled with updated GIS data and functionalities to be able to estimate the extent of damage to human life and property. We have developed a web-GIS enabled risk management information system (RMIS) that integrates consequence modelling algorithms for a range of technological hazard scenarios with a geo-database containing repository of relevant hazard and vulnerability data. The RMIS can be made available through a customized user interface to decision makers, emergency responders and concerned stakeholders, based on requirement. A pilot system has already been deployed for the industrial town of Haldia, India. We conclude that adoption of such an integrated approach will add considerable value to existing tools for management of industrial risk, providing end-users with more contextual information for decision making.
Keywords: risk scenario, hazard footprint, vulnerability, simulation, geo-database, web-GIS, RMIS

Evolving a methodology to factor chemical risk into land use planning decisions in India'

Anandita Sengupta, Ph D student, Dept. of Urban & Regional Planning, Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth observation (ITC), The Netherlands, dbandyopadhyay@itc.nl
Debanjan Bandyopadhyay, Cees J van Westen, Associate Professor, Faculty of Geo-information Science and Earth observation (ITC), The Netherlands, sengupta15552@itc.nl,

Industrial accidents like Bhopal (1984) and more recently Jaipur (2009) have clearly shown how the consequences of such accidents can severely be affected by the juxtaposition of hazardous installations with high population densities. In such cases, the risk posed by industrial accidents rises as further industrial or urban development takes place. This is particularly the case in developing countries like India, where the lack of regulatory framework for land use planning results in the close proximity of hazardous industries to residential areas with their vulnerable communities. Though land use planning is widely accepted as an important planning measure for minimizing risk; however it is difficult to implement because of the various considerations involved with land use, especially in countries like India where pressure on land tend to be high. India, one of the most densely populated countries in the world, is also witnessing rapid industrialization. Today India has more than 1949 Maximum Accident Hazard (MAH) industries, a number which is steadily increasing following the Petroleum, Chemicals and Petrochemicals Investment Region (PCPIR) Policy, for industries that store or process considerable amounts of hazardous chemicals. In continuation of earlier practice, such MAH industries tend to be clustered in some 90 industrial towns across the country, thereby exposing the nearby resident population to the adverse effects of releases of toxic substances, explosions and fires. Many of these towns are also attracting new industries, including the MAH category, because of availability of supporting infrastructural facilities, the availability of skilled manpower and other locational advantages. In the absence of an appropriate regulatory framework, such developments are leading to a further increase in risk levels in such areas or towns.
It is after 25years of Bhopal Disaster; so far in India no provision has been made to consider ‘risk’ in land use planning decision. Recently, after concluding investigations into a major fire accident in a hazardous facility in the city of Jaipur (India, 2009), the government is now considering to draw up zoning regulations for the surrounding areas of major petroleum and petrochemical high hazard installations.
In this regard, we have made an attempt to formulate a methodology to quantify industrial risk considering the consequence of an accident scenario and vulnerability of the neighbouring area.The authors have also examined the basis for formulating a suitable risk zoning approach considering industrial risk-related criteria into account and applied the result of such criteria to the industrial town of Haldia in India. A scenario-based consequence assessment was carried out for the identified reference scenarios. Reference scenarios were selected based on expert’s judgement. Based on available hazardous chemical inventories and their location, footprints of the reference scenarios were prepared and successively aggregated into a consequence map of the study area. Using a multi-criteria rating and ranking method, vulnerability of the area was estimated considering building construction, number of people and sensible receptors etc. These maps were subsequently multiplied using a risk matrix to prepare the risk map depicting potential risks of the area. Finally, the result was discussed to identify useful inputs for future land use planning of the area as well as for risk mitigation interventions. The same framework can be adopted for future land use planning exercises in other industrial areas to minimize risk levels, thereby helping to reduce the odds of another Bhopal like incident.
Key words: Industrial hazard, risk assessment, land use planning, India

Applications of RS and GIS Technique in Ground Water Decontamination: Recent Trend in Disaster Management
Parul Sharma, Department of Chemistry, Amity School of Engineering & Technology, Amity University, Haryana, sendtosharma_parul@yahoomail.com
Shalini Srivastava, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, sendtoparul@rediffmail.com

One of the most formidable challenges facing the human kind in the 21st century is sustainable environmental management. Ground Water quality management is of prime concern since it affects all and the way in which we live. The problem of ground water contamination can be managed if the source of the contamination is known and managed. The level of problem can be decrease to a very large extent by optimized siting decision which has gained considerable importance as they ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub components and also reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity.
In order to manage and mitigate the impact on the ground water environment, it is therefore required to have new tools and the method of analysis, which help us to collate, analyze, model and monitor diverse data on the environment in a rapid and flexible manner. RS/GIS (Remote Sensing/Geographical Information System) plays an important role in disaster management as it can serve as a means to integrate ever increasing volume of diverse spatial environmental data from numerous sources at local, regional and national scales into a manageable whole.
With this aim in view, the present study focuses the utilization of GIS system in hazard identification and risk assessment by siting areas of ground water contamination. Among dirty dozen club of toxic pollutants, heavy metals are the most important source as ground water contaminants. Thus their removal becomes an absolute necessity. Slow but pervasive risks/hazards produce by toxic metals [As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni] causes more casualties than swift environmental hazards. The need of the hour is to devise an efficient solid waste management system wherein decision-makers and waste management planners can deal with the increase in complexity, uncertainty, multi-objectivity and subjectivity associated with this problem.
Keywords: RS/GIS, ground water decontamination, disaster management, heavy metals

Anil Kumar, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, anil.uasd@gmail.com
Shivani Gupta, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, shivanigupta6@gmail.com

Alang, situated on the western coast of India, is one of the biggest ship breaking/recycling yards in the world. The suitable geographical location, cheap labour force and less stringent environmental regulations have encouraged the industries to a stretch of 10 km in Alang and Sosiya. Hundreds of ships of various categories dismantle in Alang from almost every corner of the world. Current financial year (2010-11) is going to be earmarked for Alang as the ship breaking industry is expecting highest number of ships. Alang is also associated with various environmental concerns raised over decades now. These range from liquid and solid waste control management including hazardous waste and transportation. This paper looks at the trend of hazardous and non-hazardous waste generated from the industry. Thousands of workers working in this industry are constantly exposed to various kinds of risks. Working under high risk conditions in such industries has caused casualties on a regular basis. This paper looks into the reported incidences that happened over a period of time in these industries and various associated reasons. Gujarat Maritime Board established a state of art institute for training of the workers in the year 2003 in Alang. Regular trainings are being provided to hundreds of workers in various fields. Despite numerous trainings in the field of ship recycling, incidences of various types of accidents continue to occur. This paper also examines various international conventions and national legislations in the field of ship recycling and environmental pollution. In the end, the paper recommends certain measures which can be adopted for the safety of labourers on a long term basis.
Key words: Hazardous waste, International conventions, ship recycling

A System Approach to Manage Chlorine Emergencies in Chlor-Alkali plants
Harisaran Das, Joint Director (SHE), Alkali Manufactures India Limited, hsdas@ama-india.org

Chlorine is a very useful and indispensable chemical but it is hazardous. Chlorine may leak in the plant during its production & storage due to various reasons. For any management to keep a track of all the causes of leakage on a routine manner is not possible and therefore there is likelihood of leakage during its production, storage & filling.
Leakage of Chlorine will be a major catastrophe and will be a havoc to the natural environment and human beings. Once chlorine gas leaks in the plant due to any reason, there will be an emergency situation. The severity of the emergency situation will depend on the amount & duration of the chlorine gas release. It is therefore desirable that a proper management system should be built into the daily routine work schedule of an organization to prevent chlorine leakage and handle any emergency in case of chlorine leakage.
The paper discusses a Management System for carrying out day to day process activities in a Chlor-Alkali Plant for ensuring adequate Safety System and preventive control to avoid chlorine leakage incidents in the Plant and also build up management system for handling chlorine emergencies. Preventive steps to avoid chlorine incidents In the plant and handling of chlorine emergency were discussed in detail in the paper.


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