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Environmental Services and Impact Assessment in Disater Risk Management

Themes and Objectives of the Technical Session 4

Environmental aspects of shelter management

Environmental location of shelters and rehab settlements has implications for secondary disaster risks and vulnerability, besides aspects of energy/lighting, ventilation, etc. and impact of relief shelters on environmental quality and ecosystems in the area
Objectives: Discuss the environmental considerations in shelter site identification and shelter management during disaster relief

Role of EIA in disaster Management

EIA of mitigation measures (dams/dyke, land-use directive, plan/policy decision, development projects,) ensures choice of effective and sustainable option whereas EIA of disasters helps in response measures for recovery of ecosystem services, livelihoods, environmental quality and sustainability to minimize future disaster risks
Objectives: Discuss types, approaches and applications of EIA as decision support system in pre disaster mitigation and post disaster EIA in preventing long term disaster impacts.

Water and sanitation during disasters and emergencies

Water availability/supply, quality and low-cost/local treatment facilities, are functions important during post-disaster or emergency situations in order to facilitate proper sanitation and to avoid further outbreak of disasters/epidemics, and conflicts
Objectives: Discuss the implications as well as practices for water supply and sanitation management in post disaster scenario and their role in preventing epidemics.

Waste management and disposal services

Disaster waste including human-waste (liquid & solid waste), relief-waste, debris, hazardous and/or industrial waste during disasters/emergencies is important DRM functions to avoid loss of environmental quality/ecosystem-services and avoid future disaster risks
Objectives: Discuss the adverse effects of waste in post disaster scenario and advantages of efficient waste management and disposal services.

Accepted Contributions - Abstracts

Disasters and the Environment: a Review of Opportunities

Environmental Disasters and EIA
Pavan Kumar Singh, Senior Research Officer, National Disaster Management Authority, NDMA Bhawan, A-1, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi-110029, drpavansingh@gmail.com
Susanta Kumar Jena, Senior Research Officer, National Disaster Management Authority, NDMA Bhawan, A-1, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi-110029, drmsusanta@gmail.com

Environmental protection and resource management has conventionally been given importance all over the world which has increased in recent time. In India, a major legislative measures for the purpose of environmental clearance was in 1994 when specific notification was issued under section 3 and rule 5 of the environment protection Act, 1986 called the “Environment impact Assessment Notification 1994”. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the official appraisal process to identify, predict, evaluate and justify the ecological, social, and related biophysical effects of a proposed policy, program or project on the environment.
EIA minimizes risks of environmental disasters as the legislation provides opportunity for increasing public awareness, initiatives of environmental groups and to integrate environmental consideration into developmental plans and policies. Environmental clearance for development projects can be obtained either at the state level or at the central level depending on certain criteria concerning the characteristics of the project. However, for most projects the consent must first be taken from the state pollution control board or pollution control committees in the case of union territories.
While the increased threat to the environment is matched by the enactment of an increasing amount of legislation, the responsibilities and capacities of the various agencies, including the regional offices of the MOEF, to monitor compliance has not been appropriately strengthened.
The focus of EIA now therefore needs to shift from utilization and exploitation of natural resources to conservation of natural resources. There is also an urgent need to build capacities of government agencies, communities, NGOs and the judiciary with regard to the implementation of the existing EIA notification.

An Overview of EIA Study of Swan River Flood Management Project, District Una, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Madhuri Venu, S.Rishi, Department of Environment & Vocational Studies, Punjab University, Chandigarh, venus.jun25@gmail.com
Abinder S. Chadda, IPH Department, District Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh

EIA assesses and predicts the impacts of a proposed project or action on human well-being, as well as the well-being of ecosystems on which human survival depends. Environmental Impact Assessment is one of the major instruments integrated with a goal of making economic development project, environmentally sound and sustainable. The main objective of this paper is to give a combine and integrate overview of environmental, economic and social impact assessments of Swan River Flood Management Project-II. The Swan River of district Una, Himachal Pradesh, once, was known as River of sorrow as during monsoon period the flood creates havoc in District Una. During past 10-12 years loss of property due to floods in river Swan has been estimated as more than Rs. 1,666 million (Rs. 166.6 crores). Human and livestock loss has been to the extent of 50 and 236 numbers respectively. But it was taken under the reclamation process by Swan River Flood Management and Integrated development Project and turned to the gift for district. This would revolutionize the economy of the farmers of Una district as it would result in raising of 1,500 metric tons of fish, 14,450 metric tons of food-grains, pulses, vegetables and 7,700 metric tons of fruits every year besides mitigating miseries caused due to floods to life and property both. This paper is an overview of EIA study of Swan River Flood Management and Integrated development Project -II. The EIA study gives the maximum thrust to the impacts on water environment and its cascading effects on the biotic as well as abiotic environment.
Keywords: - EIA, Environment, Sustainable, Flood Management, Economy.

The role of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on Flood Risk in India
Alok Singh, Accurate Institute of Advanced Management, Greater Noida, aloksinghiiit@gmail.com
Sunil Kumar Yadav, Greater Noida Institute of Technology, Greater Noida, yadavsoft@gmail.com

The research paper discusses flood risk in India, which has increased alarmingly in recent decades largely due to changing physical characteristics of the hydrological system caused by human activities: continued development of already densely populated flood plains, encroachment on flood prone areas, destruction of forests and hill slopes development.
Flood losses are high but disastrous flood events which occurred in the past as a consequence of rapid development and environmental degradation are forgotten quickly, people choosing to see only the positive benefits of a booming economy while turning a blind eye to their negative effects. It suggests that, within a climate of sustained economic boom, policy makers as well as Indians from all walks of life are understandably less concerned about floods than they are about the financial gains that can be reaped from a booming economy. States that official solutions for flood control are largely engineering based and are ineffective to combat extensive monsoon floods.
In this paper we have used Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), is the official appraisal process to identify, predict, evaluate and justify the ecological, social, and related biophysical effects of a proposed policy, program or project on the environment. It provides insight on alternatives and measures to be adopted before any commitment, thus helps in important decision-making. The overall objective of the EIA is to design developmental projects and activities taking into consideration the environmental perspective.
Keywords:Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Flood Risk, Indian Context, Risk assessment, Risk Mitigation Strategy.

Groundwater Management during Disasters in India
K. J. Anandha Kumar, Associate Professor, National Institute of Disaster Management - 5-B, IIPA Campus, IP Estate, M.G.Road, New Delhi-110002 - kjanand@gmail.com

The disasters events that occurred in the last three decades in India have also affected the water resources of the respective areas in various ways, sometimes in a deteriorating way, initiating response from the stake holders of the area. So far, the action of these stakeholders in general has been, playing the role of a responder to the disaster. The learning from these experiences can be utilized for coping with such future events. The Groundwater plays a vital role to restore water supply in an area affected by disaster, especially during the recovery and rehabilitation period. The experience of impact of disaster on groundwater regime and its management are discussed in this paper. The scientific knowledge of occurrence and movement of this precious, invisible resource through various hydrogeological surveys, exploration and monitoring will help to protect and utilize this resource at the time of disaster. Further, in the changing scenario with paradigm shift in disaster management policy towards disaster preparedness from that of responsive role, the experience gained, knowledge, expertise and data base available, can help achieve the reduction of the impact of the disaster by protecting the available fresh water sources and restoring the of potable water supply with minimal loss of time.

Waste Management and Disposal Services after Disasters in India
G.Niranjani M.A. M.Phil. (PhD), Research and Teaching Assistant, Discipline of Public Administration, School of Social Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, niranjinis@yahoo.co.in / niranjani.paranthaman@gmail.com

Disasters such as floods, fires, hurricanes, earth quakes, tsunami, droughts, bomb blasts, and cyclones cause waste disposal challenges in communities across the nation. These disasters result in the creation of large quantities of new debris (construction and demolition materials, vegetation, hazardous waste, refrigerators and other appliances and electronic devices). These materials must be separated from normal waste and managed differently to ensure they are disposed of safely. Mass feeding facilities and mass care centers used during some disaster responses may also result in the accumulation of large amounts of waste in a single location. Some events do not produce new debris but cause a problem by disrupting the waste management system that normally stores, collects, and disposes of solid waste. For example, an ice storm could disrupt the collection and transportation of waste and an influenza pandemic could severely reduce the number of waste management workers able to come to work.
The objectives of this research paper are to analyze the problem of the waste disposal after disasters and find out a solution for it which is a timely need for humanity. The study undertaken includes interviews and observation methods which come under primary data. Government records, website sources, magazines, journals, periodicals, newspapers, books which comes under secondary data. The method of research is descriptive. Planning must be done to ensure availability and use of the human and physical resources needed for rescue work and provide preliminary needs as per the requirement of the area. Accordingly in each area, for possible calamities in the city, resources have to be identified. Participative approach would be the right attitude to face the challenges by waste management after disasters. People have to come forward to help one and all. Non Governmental Organizations should participate voluntarily in helping according to the situation. Government organizations should act immediately to safeguard the situation. A participative process of thinking and dialogue builds strategic capability and can be more creative and important than analytically derived plans. Collaboration in the planning process establishes a common framework for communication and decision-making and has wider team-building effects. Participation encourages initiative and responsibility. Thus it is important for each and every individual to participate for a good cause which will really help the human affected in the past and try to create a preparedness attitude for the future.

Waste Management and Disposal Services Integral Part of Relief Measures
G. Ravi (Indian Navy), Officer in Charge NBCD School, INS Shivaji, Lonavala – 410402, Maharastra

Large quantities of waste is generated during natural calamities, it is both a threat to public health and also hinders rescue and relief efforts. Waste generated during disasters can be categorized under the following broad classifications: a) Waste and debris as consequence of calamity / disasters and b) Waste generated by effected personnel at relief camps / disaster site

Natural calamities Tsunami, earthquake, cyclones, draught, floods will generally result in localized generation of rubble, earth and vegetation. Man-Made Disasters Industrial Accidents, sabotage and CBRN incidents are potentially far reaching and will involve wastes which are incident specific and can be far reaching in extent , scale and duration.

The extent of waste generated on account of a natural calamity or manmade disaster cannot be predicted accurately. However the waste generated on account of human activity post disaster at site and relief camps can be minimized by a well thought out disaster response plan and its efficient implementation, which is specific to an area and type of disaster.

This paper will discuss the impact of disaster waste on the environment and society with particular emphasis to our country. Also impact of incidents such as the collision/ grounding of shipping, accidents offshore resulting from oil exploration / extraction, industrial accidents / possible sabotage will also be examined.

Further measures to mitigate the effects of waste generated post disaster through preparedness and efficient delivery of relief and rehabilitation measures will be examined. This will put into perspective our present relief and response model towards handling disaster waste.

Role of EIA in Disaster Management
Aditi Madan, M.A. Disaster Management, v Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai

Recurrent disasters occur causing huge loss of life and property. Following any disaster, Reconstruction and Recovery policy is formulated providing a timeframe for various activities to be undertaken within planning and implementation framework. There is a need for placing environment in the policy framework to avoid further degradation of environment and to ensure that the environment is included effectively in both, within individual sectors, but also as a separate sector.
The recovery strategy for environment as a cross cutting sector, focuses on ensuring sound management of the environment and natural resources at all levels. For instance the environmental control authority of Aceh (BAPEDAL) selected 86 major projects for environmental impact assessment. To meet the urgent needs of the situation, it used a method that focused on key environmental factors and enabled a quick reaction to the people’s need for reconstruction, while keeping the negative effects on the environment to a minimum. All the projects for the quarrying of sand and gravel were carefully checked for controls on the removal of sand and gravel from the river which could have resulted in altering of the course of rivers leading to flooding, landslides etc. The goal was to make those responsible aware of possible damage to the environment, while offering possible solutions.

Thus to ensure that environmental considerations are addressed and incorporated into the development process, to anticipate and minimize environmental impacts of development proposals, to protect the productivity and capacity of ecological systems and to promote development that is sustainable and optimizes the resource in best possible way there is a need for EIA in Disaster preparedness and Management.

Vulnerability of water and electricity supply towards natural hazards
Claudia Bach, Research Associate - UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY - Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Germany (on behalf of GIZ)

In the light of climate change, temperature and precipitation weather patterns are changing in intensity and duration. Additionally, the number of extreme weather events including heat waves/droughts, storms, heavy precipitation and flooding (due to sea level rise) is increasing. At the same time, an increasing number of persons and values is being affected by such events due to socio¬economic changes such as urbanization, population growth or economic growth. However, the accumulation of values and population in urban (hazard prone) areas also involves infrastructures that have to be built to allow the functioning of such urban areas. Thus, in case of a hazardous event, these infrastructures can be affected, too.

Besides the accumulation of infrastructures in urban areas, the mentioned socio-economic changes (also including globalization and technological changes) require increasingly complex systems of infrastructures that depend on each other as for example in the case of electricity and information and communication technology (ICT). In parallel, an increasing number of infrastructures is being operated by privately owned companies which challenges the governance of these complex systems.

These developments make it necessary to have a closer look at the vulnerability of infrastructure services towards natural hazards and effects on the population affected in case of their black-out. Especially due to the fact that critical infrastructures and electricity supply in particular built the backbone of developed and developing (urban) societies. Many sectors such as transport, health services and the economy depend on electricity and society. In case of a major black-out, neither banks nor electric light would work and stations as well as airports would face chaotic situations. At the same time, population and economy are highly dependent on the functioning of these services. Nevertheless, there have been few attempts to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructures.

Developing a comprehensive assessment for infrastructures based on the understanding that vulnerability can be described as a function of exposure, susceptibility and coping capacity, two steps have to be taken into account: First, the vulnerability of certain infrastructure systems has to be evaluated. Second, the dependency of other systems and the population in case of infrastructure failure has to be assessed. The first step encompasses the physical assessment of components and their meaning for the whole process. It has to be identified whether components are exposed to certain hazards, if they would be affected by it and if they could technically and organizationally be replaced. Among these steps the whole system can be assessed. The second step comprises the assessment of a failures impact and interdependencies between different services and the population. At this stage especially mismatches between demand and supply play an important role.

Referring to these steps, the paper will introduce potentials and limits of vulnerability assessments of critical infrastructures and will introduce an approach to capture second- and third-order effects (for heat waves) which can be used for improvements in the planning process when developing infrastructure supply systems but also for improving disaster risk management by taking effects of infrastructure failure into account.

Floods in Gorakhpur: Applying EIA to Risk Mitigation
Richa Arya, M. Yunus, Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A Central) University, Lucknow (U.P.)
Anil K. Gupta, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi

The Gorakhpur district, a district in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, covers area of 3,483.8 square kilometres. Situated on the bank of rivers Rapti and Rohini, rivers originated from Himalayan foothills and the north-eastern India influenced by the summer monsoon causing heavy rains during June – September, and the glaciers provide their greatest amount of water to the river during the this period. Floods in these regions are not new. Several part of the district is affected annually. Drainage congestion due to environmental degradation, land-use changes and deposition of silt in the channels aggravated flood flows during monsoon season. Flooding in this region causes widespread loss of environment including agriculture, forests, soil, livestock, besides affecting habitations, infrastructure and thus, the human lives. Populations in rural area are living marginalised, below poverty and lack capacity to development flood resistance on their own. During and after flood the problems related to potable water, health, sanitation, water logging etc. make the situation worse. It usually takes more than two months period to return back into the normal routine life.
Impact of developmental projects, land-use changes and environmental degradation has not only aggravated the impact of climate-change implications and disasters particularly flood, but also caused new hazards for water and climate related disasters. Thus, impact assessment approach is expected to be helpful in understanding the phenomenon of risk building for flood disasters in the pre-disaster context. On the other hand, various mitigation measures – structural or non-structural, need to be screened for their ecological and economic compatibility where EIA plays a vital role. Rapid EIA of post-disaster situation helps in quick understanding of environmental needs, response, relief and recovery plan from environmental angle, which is very important for ensuring sustainability in livelihoods, health, agriculture and long-term sustainable development. Present paper examines the case of Gorakhpur flood from angle of applying EIA to the three stages of flood disaster management – risk analysis, mitigation and post-disaster, in order to develop a prototype for EIA application in flood disaster management in India.


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