Natural Resources Management - Linkage to Disaster Risk Management


Themes and Objectives of the Technical Session 5

Natural resource management

Disasters affect key natural resources whereas effective management of land/land-use including agriculture, forestry, water systems, life-forms and atmospheric environment reduces disaster risks and community vulnerability to disasters impacts
Objectives: Discuss that environmental conservation and disaster risk reduction are complimentary in nature.

Ecosystem approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

Ecosystem based adaptation and DRR approach addresses creating ecological buffers against impact of disasters that also improves livelihoods, reduces GHG implications, and also reduces hazards that can cause a disaster
Objectives: Synergise the indigenous as well as global practices and chalk out a strategy which fits sustainably in today’s scenario.

Mountain environment and Disaster Risk Reduction

Increasing deforestation, degradation of catchments/watersheds, siltation of channels, and climate change impacts causing increasing intensity/frequency of floods and damages, landslides, water scarcity and livelihood challenges in mountain/hill areas
Objectives: Discuss mountain environment issues and strategies for DRR

Coastal environment and Disaster Risk Reduction

Land-use flaws, mining, overexploitation of groundwater, sewage disposal, oil spills, depletion of corals, mangroves, shorebed rise, with sea level rise, causing increased cyclone damages, sea water ingress, salinity and water scarcity in coastal areas aggravating disaster impacts and vulnerability
Objectives: Discuss coastal environment issues, various regulations and strategies for DRR


Accepted Contributions - Abstracts


Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events in India
Advisor to the Minister of Science and Technology, Govt. of India

Sustainable Coastal Protection and Alternative Livelihood Option through Bamboo Bioshields
Thara K.G, Head , Disaster Management Centre and Member, State Disaster Management Authority, Government of Kerala

The colossal destruction, loss of lives and livelihoods which India faced during the 2004 Tsunami emphasised the need for an integrated coastal zone management and an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMPs) in the coastal zones. The state of Kerala (India) , which is surrounded on all the three sides by the sea has a unique status in that it has a very long sea coast ( 587 Km) , which hosts a very high population (2000-3000/ km2 in a small geographical area ( 38698 km2) and). About 800000 fishermen folk live in this dynamic area of tsunami, flood and cyclone disasters. As structural measures are prohibitively expensive and severely damage the natural beauty of the beaches, promotion of non structural measures such as development of green belts are increasingly becoming more the order of the day. Mangroves and other coastal forests have the limitation that they do not grow in all soil and climatic conditions. Promotion of bamboo cultivation as the bio-shield for coastal protection has the multi-faceted advantages of enhancing employment opportunity and livelihood security of the vulnerable communities. It also has an economic imperative that it can revive and promote the traditional sector of bamboo based cottage and small or large –scale industries, handicrafts etc. Cultivation of bamboo trees along the coastal belt will also provide food, ecological, livelihood and economic security to rural artisans and industrial workers. Owing to the wide adaptability of bamboo to various climatic conditions, and soil types and its role as an effective carbon sink, a slow and sustainable shift towards bamboo should encouraged. Durability of bamboo against wind, cyclone and earthquakes also supports its wide use in disaster resistant construction activities , concrete reinforcing etc and can also serve as a tool for employment & I income generation.
Key words: integrated coastal zone management, bio-shield, coastal protection


Land & Water Management Strategies for Drought and Flood Proofing
K.K. Sahu, Professor Deptt. of Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry,
R.K. Sahu, Dean, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering IGKV, Raipur (Chhattisgarh)


India is one of the most disaster prone countries of the world. Drought is a perennial and recurring feature in many parts of India. According to reports (Govt. of India) about 68% of the country is prone to drought . Drought leads to large-scale migration in search of alternative livelihoods, loss of human life due to stress, suicide, starvation or unhygienic conditions, and increased social conflict. The emphasis, therefore, has to move towards simple technologies to harness rainwater, against the large-scale exploitation of rivers and groundwater through dams and tube-wells. Drought and floods in India are a perennial phenomenon, recurring with regular consistency every few years.
Rural Chhattisgarh is passing through an economic crisis. Majority of the population(>60%) is still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood . As a result of population pressure on the land resources to produce more and to bring un-culturable land into cultivation. About 1.18 M ha of land in Chhattisgarh (8.74% of geographical area) have been identified as wastelands (Wasteland Atlas- 2005, MoRD). In addition to these wastelands about 0.35 M ha of agricultural lands are marginally productive, where agriculture is generally uneconomical. The problems associated with wastelands development can be grouped into policy, management and technical aspects which needs careful address of these issues.
After nearly three decades of satisfactory agricultural growth, both production and productivity has been stagnating during last 10 years. To overcome the problems extending the technological gain to new areas, particularly eastern India and dry farming areas. Eastern India has the largest untapped production reservoir in agriculture. The strategy of developing natural resources base such as land, soil and water to ensure sustainable production and productivity through watershed management programme. ICRISAT’s experience in rainfed areas has clearly demonstrated that more than water quantity per se management of water resources is the limitations in SAT (Wani et.al. 2003a). In Chhattisgarh state 77 per cent cropped area depends on rainfall for supply of moisture. Although the region receives high amounts of rainfall annually (1200-1600mm), bulk of precipitation occurs in high intensity storms of very short duration. The water so received is prom to runoff, seepages and percolation losses much faster than its uptake by crops. This causes drought and flood situation in the state. Situation is accelerated in case of upland and barren Bhata land situations. Chhattisgarh has a dense network of untapped perennial and seasonal Nala/riverlets/streams/rivers. These are major bottlenecks that have hindered growth in agricultural productivity and farm income. Appropriate land and water management strategies can be adopted to mitigate these problems.


Protection of Mangroves and Related Species – a Natural Care to Avert the Damage of Tsunami
Dr. G. Vedanthadesikan, Senior Assistant Professor, Centre for Rural Development - drgvdesikan@gmail.com, profgvdesikan@rediffmail.com
P. Murugesan, Assistant Professor, Centre for Rural Development, palanivelmurugesan@gmail.com
Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 -


Right from 2004 people of the world, particularly people residing near the Coastal area are fearing about the Tsunami, a natural and manmade disaster. This not only takes the lives of human being and also affects the livestock, cultivable land, drinking water etc. Whenever there is an earth quake occurred in the sea/ocean (epicenter) there is a possibility of Tsunami. Now days, the warning system is available and alert the countries which are at the risk of Tsunami. In the context of developing countries, the warning system is an advance one. Due the availability of this system, the tsunami cannot be prevented or averted and at the same time the damage could be reduced. Here reduction of damage means, one can alert the
people and make them to go to the safest place. Tsunami. In the context of developing countries, the warning system is an advance one. Due the availability of this system, the tsunami cannot be prevented or averted and at the same time the damage could be reduced. Here reduction of damage means, one can alert the people and make them to go to the safest place. But the damage of buildings and other things cannot be averted. (For example, on 10th
March Japan was totally collapsed by Tsunami, though they have well built Tsunami Warning System). But due to the absence of mangrove/related species, the complete coastal area, where the developed systems are existing have been destroyed completely The nature itself creates Tsunami and other natural disasters. And at the same time it gives the natural solution also. The mangrove forests which are existing at Sundarban (West Bangal) and Pichavaram (Tamil Nadu) and Carnicobar Islands (Andaman) reduced the damage of Tsunami. It is witnessed during the 2006 Tsunami. Where the Mangrove forests are in dense, there the Killer waves are the blocked by the mangroves, where the Mangrove was cleared or removed by the human, there the people paid their lives. Where the Mangroves or the related species are not available there it can be grown. Now, the M.S Swminathan Research Foundation are under taking this project. Hence, in this paper an attempt is made to explain the how the mangroves could be grown so as to prevent the damage of Tsunami.


Flood Management in GBM Basin: A Mechanism for Natural Resource Management between Co-Riparian
Priyanka Mallick, PhD Student, South Asian Studies, School of International Studies, JNU.

Floods are an integral part of the inherent variability of nature. It is an attribute of the physical environment and thus is an important component of hydrological cycle of a drainage basin. It plays a major role in replenishing freshwater resources, recharging wetlands and groundwater and supporting agriculture and fishery systems, thereby making flood plains preferred areas for human settlement and various economic activities. However, floods have negative impacts as well, such as on lives, livelihoods and economic activities and in extreme cases they cause devastation. The way we deal with floods co-determines whether water remains a life-providing element or becomes a destructive force against human life and economic development. Flood hazards and disasters are the products of an interaction between environmental and social, economic and political processes. Disasters as multi-dimensional and all encompassing occurrences influence every aspects of human life. So a multi-dimensional approach, related with the newly emerging concept of Integrated Flood Management (IFM) should be analysed. The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghana (GBM) basin is a major source region of floods. Due to the excessive water flow in the monsoon months in these three rivers, the people of the riparian countries suffer from untold miseries due to the occurrence of floods almost every year. Geographically the region is integrated. However, politically this is the parts of different countries like India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. Individual efforts of each country to mitigate the flood hazards by adopting preventive measures did not prove much effective. Hence, a region-wide integrated approach based on comprehensive data sharing and joint modelling and scenario development efforts among the GBM countries would be highly useful in managing floods and mitigating its impacts in all the regional countries.
Key words: Integrated Flood Management, integrated approach, riparian countries


Strengthening Adaptation Capacities and Minimizing Risks of Vulnerable Coastal Communities
Dr. Ashish Chaturvedi, Dr. Rachna Arora - GIZ-ASEM, ashish.chaturvedi@giz.de, Rachna.arora@giz.de

Adaptation to climate change requires community-based, integrated and innovative solutions that simultaneously address livelihood improvements and environmental sustainability. Measures focusing on preparedness for climate change and related disasters will enhance proofing of communities and thus contribute to livelihood security and poverty alleviation. With this view, GIZ-ASEM implemented an adaptation project, financed by the German Ministry of Development Cooperation (BMZ) in the two Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in the second half of 2010. The main goal was increasing the resilience of local communities to current and projected climate impacts. To achieve the goal, in addition to capacity development measures, the project developed local adaptation guides and implemented selected measures identified in the guides.
To develop the guides and identify adaptation measures to be implemented, the project used the local knowledge, together with scientific evidence and tools. One such tool, the Klimalotse or the climate Navigator, has recently been developed by the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt). The modular Klimalotse has five parts that start from an introduction about climate change and then in distinct steps move towards the development of a strategy for climate change adaptation. The interim steps include the identification of risks and opportunities as well as the development of potential measure to overcome them. It is important to note that the audience for the Klimalotse are the heads of environmental departments at companies and municipalities, who would like to make a self assessment on a basic level. They get introduced into the topic of climate change and then have to work through various parts of the navigator by themselves.
The project adapted the Klimalotse to the context of coastal communities in India by following a moderated approach. The communities were supported in the various steps of developing the local adaptation guides by facilitators who were trained on the Klimalotse methodology by the project team. Further, due to the paucity of scientific data, the risks and opportunities were mainly based on the local community knowledge which was also collated with the support of the same facilitators. Finally, the communities were guided through the perceived risks and identify pilot measures which could potentially overcome the risks. The pilot initiatives were proposed by the villages, then refined, planned and implemented with assistance of the project team. Projects include elevating a piped causeway to flood-proof it, renovating irrigation bunds and desalinating soil as well as fortifying a freshwater reservoir against coastal erosion.
Keywords: Adaptation, climate change, coastal erosion.


Ecosystem Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction
Sunanda Dey, Research Scholar, Dept. of Anthropology, Delhi University - sunandadey2010@gmail.com

Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and quantum day by day. For better preparedness for and mitigation of impacts of disasters, disaster risk reduction measures play critical role. The ecosystem approach of indigenous communities makes them resilient towards future disasters. The ecosystem approach helps to manage resource use more effectively and contribute to reducing the risk and impact of disasters. It is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The indigenous communities all over the world are perfect example from whom we can learn to utilize natural resources more efficiently, in harmony with nature leading to sustainable development. Humans are an integral part of the ecosystem. Ecosystems are closely linked with social systems such that people receive substantial benefits of food, fiber, habitation, tourism, climate moderation, flood reduction etc. Endangering the ecosystems would impact humans leading to their increased vulnerability to natural disasters. Sustainable indigenous disaster risk reduction measures reduce the impact of hazard exposure and make the community ready to bear the consequences more effectively. The Mishing community affected by annual floods in Brahmaputra river in Assam, with their indigenous cultural practices have shown an example of living with risk. The incorporation in development policy and planning of such practices shall be highly appreciable and a move towards more sustainable development living.
Keywords: ecosystem approach, conservation, indigenous cultural practices


Urbanisation, Water Scarcity and Climate Change: A Case from Rajasthan with Global Implications
M. S. Rathore, Sarah Opitz-Stapleton, Shashikant Chopde and Marcus Moench

The world is rapidly urbanising. At a global level, over 50% of the world’s population already resides in cities and urban areas, which have become the primary engines of economic development (UN-Habitat 2009). Migration into urban areas is high, as populations respond both to the opportunities they present and the pressures inherent in highly uncertain rural, agricultural livelihoods. Yet, how solid is the foundation upon which urbanisation rests? In many parts of the world, the basic resources, such as water, required for burgeoning urban populations are increasingly polluted, in limited supply and facing intense competition from multiple users. Climate change is likely to substantially exacerbate the multiple challenges of providing adequate water resources to urban populations and protecting ecosystems.

Fluctuating weather patterns - changes in temperature, precipitation and other climatic variables - could fundamentally affect the availability and quality of the water supplies that are central to the survival of urban areas. Many migrants from rural areas to urban areas are already pushed to leave their homes by depleted or degraded water resources and weather variability. As the frequency and intensity of climate related hazards, such as floods or droughts, changes, the rate of migration from rural to urban areas is likely to increase and further stretch the ability of urban areas to supply water to their populations (Bordalo and Savva-Bordalo 2007; Drechsel et al. 2007; Satterthwaite 2008). Furthermore, because transitions to urban livelihoods are pulsed and dynamic, urban water supply needs are difficult to project and many populations remain un-served by municipal systems. The problem is threefold: 1) To project and define the relationship between climatic and water resource conditions on one side and likely population pulses between urban, peri-urban and rural areas on the other side; 2) To ensure clean and safe water supplies are physically available that can meet the changing needs of migrants for domestic and livelihood uses; and 3) To deliver supplies to vulnerable (often transient) populations, particularly in areas that are not served by formal piped systems.

Addressing the above problem in a way that catalyzes attention and action requires approaches to research that actively engage key private, public and non-government actors. It also requires evaluation of current policies and projects governing the provision of water supplies to migrant populations.

Jaipur city in Rajasthan, India, represents a microcosm of the dilemma faced by many urban areas. Rural to urban migration rates are high and the city is growing rapidly, with settlement occurring both in the urban centre and the surrounding peri-urban areas. Water supplies are limited and often of low quality. Groundwater mining over many decades has heavily drawn down, and in some cases depleted, aquifers at both local and district scales. The impacts of over-pumping are further compounded by pollution and degradation of recharge areas. These impacts are of particular concern in the rapidly expanding peri-urban area surrounding Jaipur, where changes in land use are eliminating groundwater recharge zones and sewage and commercial effluents are discharged untreated. Surface water sources are heavily developed. Bisalpur Dam, designed to become the principal source of Jaipur’s municipal water supply from 2010 onward, has only filled nine times since it became operational in 1994 (Department of Irrigation, Sechai Bhawan JLN Marg Jaipur 2010).

Rainfall distribution is spatially uneven throughout the Banas River Basin, the river that feeds Bisalpur Dam, and is highly variable. Approximately, 90% of the annual precipitation falls in July-September as the basin lies at the northwestern fringe of the South Asian Monsoon. The basin is bounded by the Aravalli Range on the west, which creates two rainfall zones in the area upstream of Bisalpur Dam. One zone receives an annual average of 805mm and the other only 614mm. Sequential drought years are common and some, such as 2000-2003 in which rainfall decreased almost 60%, are severe. The extreme recent drought events resulted in a marked flight from the rural areas to Jaipur city, and a significant drawdown in groundwater. Slight changes in the dynamics of the monsoon system as a result of climate change, whether through general shifts in the starting date, changes in overall rainfall amount and/or through rain events becoming less frequent but more intense, could have drastic implications for Jaipur’s water availability. Given Jaipur’s dependence on this one source for much of its water supply, any disruption could undermine one of the most essential resources required for any city to sustain itself – a secure source of water supply.

Jaipur’s potential vulnerability to climate change and rapid population growth typifies that of many cities. The case study of Jaipur city provides an analysis of the dynamic changes occurring in one specific location, and at the same time, as shedding light on issues that will be faced by many cities globally. Statistical downscaling of climate change scenarios to produce future rainfall projections between 2009 – 2040 and Modelling and analysis of Jaipur’s current and future water supply vulnerability through an integrated water resource software, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) were the tools used in the study.

A baseline characterization of Jaipur’s water supply context based on the above analysis was evaluated and used to develop potential future scenarios of water supply, demand, and migration patterns. Plausible demand and supply-side scenarios were then developed and tested in an integrated water resource model to evaluate their ability to provide water to Jaipur’s burgeoning population under various migration and climate change scenarios.

Analysis of Jaipur’s water supply system highlights the fundamental fragility of one of the basic systems upon which the future of the urban area and the livelihood and wellbeing of its residents depend. Both historical experiences and modelling results highlight the high possibility of sequential drought years in which the current water supply system would fail severely to meet the basic needs of urban residents. The ability to respond to this situation is heavily undermined by the unavailability, inaccessibility and lack of neutrality in key data sets. Official estimates of water supply availability in key facilities, such as the Bisalpur dam, differ by as much as two orders of magnitude depending upon the data source. The uncertainties inherent in climate change projections further undermine the ability of key actors at the city level to adequately project water supply availability for burgeoning urban populations in the future. Reliable quantitative estimates of future stream flow are impossible to generate based on currently available data and, even if substantial improvements in data availability and neutrality could be assured, would remain limited due to uncertainties in climate, demographic changes, and livelihood shifts.

The peri-urban areas surrounding the city are both a major source of vulnerability and potential areas where innovations could transform Jaipur’s water supply future. Land uses and institutions are changing rapidly in these regions as migrants settle or cycle back and forth between their rural homes and the city, and urban forms of economic activity emerge. On one level, these contribute heavily to degradation of the ecosystems and local water resource base. On another level, as institutions and water uses change, the peri-urban areas are points of dynamic change where many of the rigidities that have blocked innovative approaches to water management in both rural and established urban areas are less entrenched. The common rule of thumb is that 80% of India’s urban areas have yet to be built (ISET 2010). This maxim applies as well in the peri-urban areas surrounding Jaipur, which will likely become part the future urban core. If key groundwater recharge areas can be protected in these areas, if innovative and efficient water supply systems can be established and if water quality can be protected, then Jaipur’s future as city that is resilient to climate change and other disruptions may be possible to ensure. The future depends on the peri-urban regions and the opportunities for change that may be inherent in the transitions they are now undergoing. Understanding these opportunities and developing mechanisms to work with and take advantage of them is a fundamental challenge to building urban resilience.

M. S. Rathore, Sarah Opitz-Stapleton, Shashikant Chopde and Marcus Moench

Developing Effective Storm Water Drainage Systems Plan for Flood Management in the City
Prof. Anjana Vyas, Faculty of Geomatics and Space Applications, CEPT University, Ahmedabad - 380009, anjanavyas@cept.ac.in

With rapidly increasing concentration of population, economic activity, infrastructure and critical facilities, the cities of Asia represent greater vulnerability to disasters. Damage from floods has been increasing in most countries. Floods are the most destructive because they occur most frequently. Floods are excessive accumulations or flows of water which result from heavy rainfall, cyclones, snow melt, high tides or other causes, such as dam burst, embankment failure. Although flooding is primarily a natural phenomenon and occurs from time to time in all rivers and natural drainage systems, human interventions such as deforestation, poorly developed land drainage systems, greater agricultural land use and rapid urbanization have exacerbated the occurrence and severity of flood disasters. Mitigation offers the best and most cost-effective approach to deal with floods.
Urban flood are of a different nature. It is an accumulation of the rain water and parts of the city gets inundated for several days to a few hours. The impacts of urban floods are widespread, but can include temporary relocation of people, risk of diseases, deteriorated water quality and damage to infrastructure, crops, buildings and vehicles. This paper emphasises on urban flood mapping, integrating storm water drainage system with the rain fall, its intensity and time of concentration, based up on this the requirement of the storm water drainage in the city identified.
This includes the use of remote sensing and GIS, the scenario building of the flood occurrences as the impact of varied rainfall intensities, the storm water pipe lines, calculation of runoff and carrying capacity, the identification of the deficit of storm water lines, the identification of flood impact zones and vulnerable land use. The model building is being carried out using GIS.


Ecological Social and Technological Dimensions of Resource Management for Reducing Disaster Risk
Dr. A. K, Choudhary, DIRD, GGSIP, University, Delhi, and Charulata, Swaimprabha IITT, PTU, Jalandhar - anil5dird@gmail.com

Disasters are not random and do not occur by accident. They are the convergence of hazards and vulnerable conditions. Disasters not only reveal underlying social, economic, political and environmental problems, but unfortunately contribute to worsening them. Such events pose serious challenges to development, as they erode hard-earned gains in terms of political, social and educational progress, as well as infrastructure and technological development. Several studies have recently highlighted the fact that investments in development are in jeopardy unless precautionary action is taken toward reducing disaster risk Environmental degradation, settlement patterns, livelihood choices and behaviour can all contribute to disaster risk, which in turn adversely affects human development and contributes to further environmental degradation. The poorest are the most vulnerable to disasters because they are often pushed to settle on the most marginal lands and have least access to prevention, preparedness and early warning. In addition, the poorest are the least resilient in recovering from disasters because they lack support networks, insurance and alternative livelihood options.
The proliferation of new technologies and processes for managing natural resources, including new knowledge of the ecological, social and cultural dimensions of resource management, presents many opportunities for reducing disaster risk.


Disaster Risk Reduction in the Himalayan context - relationship between NRM and Community Engagement
Gargi Banerji and Sejuti Basu and Abhinaba Chakravarti - PRAGYA

To share understanding of mountain environment issues and strategies for DRR in view of increasing degradation of watersheds, and climate change impacts causing increasing intensity / frequency of floods and landslides, water scarcity and livelihood challenges in the cold desert areas in the Himalayas and come out with concrete steps for the way forward.
A four pronged approach involving a) field work across 56 micro watersheds in the Western Himalayas [Kinnaur, Chamba in Himachal Pradesh] and Trans Himalayas [Ladakh in J & K and Lahaul & Spiti in Himachal Pradesh] to collect the necessary data for the study; b) a PRA initiative covering 65 villages to understand the socio-economic issues on the ground; c) a multi-stakeholder workshop involving state agencies, academicians and community participants to gain an understanding of the interplay of various factors; d) Mix of various mitigation interventions carried out across 7 pockets across the target areas.
Based on the study a model relating environment threat and adaptive capacity has been developed. The parameters considered were a) altitude bands; b) eco-degradation; c) anthropogenic pressure; d) resource stress; e) climate change; and f) disaster risk for the threat elements. For the adaptive capacity the parameters considered were a) resource availability; b) ecological balance issues; c) development status. Deliberation by the working groups at the workshop has resulted in a set of actionable elements being identified for a) preparedness; b) adaptation; c) relief and d) recovery. Field trials for a mix of interventions relating to water, fodder, rangeland regeneration and food security issues have provided the means for scaling and replication. The first hand involvement with the disaster relief efforts during the flash floods in Leh in Aug ’10 and the learning has been integrated.


Water Resource Management for DRR - A Case study of Bero Block, Jharkhand State, India
Kiran Jalem, Asstt. Professor, Disaster Management Centre (DMC), Shri Krishna Institute of Public Administration
Purnima Kumari, Research Scholar, Ranchi University, Ranchi – 834008


A resource is any useful information, material or service. Natural resources are the components of the environment (i.e. atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere), which can be drawn upon for supporting life. In other words, natural resources are goods and services supplied by our environment (including sinks for wastes). These include energy, mineral, land (soil), food, forest, water, atmosphere (air), plants and animals.
The whole world is conscious about the conservation of our earth resources (all resources naturally present over earth). Actually all these resources are for the earth dwellers whether it is an ant or an elephant. The human is major manipulator of all these naturally occurring resources that may be water, air, soil or minerals. Exhaustible resources are the earth’s geologic endowments i.e. minerals, fossil fuels, non-mineral resources and other materials which are present in fixed amounts in the environment. Unlike renewable resources, non-renewable resources are finite in quantity and quality.Inexhaustible resources have the inherent ability to reappear or replenish themselves by recycling, reproduction or replacement. These renewable resources include sunlight, plants, animals, soil, water and living. Due to its great abundance, water is generally a very inexpensive resource. Compared with other natural resources, water is used in tremendous quantities. On a global scale, total water abundance is not the problem; the problem is water’s availability in the right place at the right time in the right form. Global water is unequally distributed. Precipitation is seasonal land, therefore, the amount of water in inland bodies (surface and ground water sources) is variable. Irregularity in the duration and intensity of rainfall often causes floods and droughts. Scarcity of fresh water results in serious regional disparities.
Thus visualizing the needs of our future generations and the importance for present generations, we should use our water resources quite carefully, logically and ethically. Such an approach of use of water resources from the concept of management and conservation of water resources. Thus management and conservation mean scientific utilization of resources while maintaining their sustained yield and quality. The exploitation of subterranean water reserves is contributing to desertification in many parts of the world, and as the subterranean water level recedes, the soil near the surface dries out and plants wither and die. This has already happened in many parts of India. If deforestation and the indiscriminate exploitation of subterranean water reserves continue, it is likely that many parts of the world will face severe water shortages. The day is not so far when water crisis is going to be a issue of civil war. So, the only way to avoid such a catastrophe is to immediately implement a decentralized approach and a proper management for water conservation. Successful management of resources for water to satisfy the changing human needs, while maintaining or enhancing the quality and quantity of water and conserving water resources.
This paper is drawn from the original site research work of Bero Block, that is 30 km away from the Ranchi City in the state of Jharkhand. Case studies were undertaken looking into the aspects of go-environmental, hydrological and the system involving. Master plan provisions are taken, good practices and lessons and the suggested strategies have been covered. The problem and challenges of Global Water Crisis that aggravate disasters like flood and drought have been discussed in this paper. The broad methodology includes digitization of water resources and attribute addition is done with the help of GIS based on the information collected during the field survey.


Flood Risk Mitigation Measures for the River Indus in Leh Town
Zainab Jalis, Student, M. Tech. (Environmental Science and Technology), Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
Amir Ali Khan, Assistant Professor, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi
Sirajuddin Ahmed, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi


Due to its geo-climatic conditions and geographic location, the historic town of Leh, in Ladakh Region of Jammu and Kashmir, is highly prone to natural hazards, which often converts into disasters, sometimes of unprecedented nature. One such disaster was faced by the town of Leh on August 5, 2011in terms of flashflood resulting due to cloud burst in the region. The impact of disaster was very severe in the region due to exceptional floods and lack of preparedness and mitigation measures to handle such situations. The disaster resulted in huge devastation in terms of human lives lost and damage and destruction of physical infrastructure.
The Indus River is the lifeline of the Ladakh Region, which originates from a point near the Mount Kailash and joined by a number of streams and rivulets forming overall hydrological character of the this Region. It flows south of Leh town, from east to west. Its water is used for drinking, irrigation and generation of power. In the north of Leh town, rivulet namely Leh Nallah (Gangles Tokpo) with its tributary streams form the natural drainage system with their own valley formation. The Leh town has been growing in the Gangles valley.
Due to cloudburst, very high discharge in the tune of 584 cum/sec was observed in the Leh Nallah. The observed velocity of gushing water was observed in the range of 7 – 20 m/s. The highest flood level (HFL) in the Leh Nallah was GL+ 0.6 - 1.1 m along the various sections with average scour depth varying from 1.1 - 2.9 m in habited areas. High quantities of water entering the Nallah with a very high speed resulted in devastating flash flood, which swept away everything in its path. To meet the challenge of flash floods in expending town of Leh, a number of mitigation measures are required to be taken up. The paper will attempt to propose height of protection bunds to train the river based on calculation of design discharge for 100 year return period with the help of extreme value distribution function. Besides, the paper will highlight other flood risk mitigation measures. Further the paper will include channelization of the Nallah and water storages to collect additional amount of water during flashfloods.

Zainab Jalis, Amir Ali Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed

Sea level changes impact on saltwater intrusion into the Gauthami-Godavari River Estuary
Thota V. Narasimha Rao, Deputy Director, National Institute of Oceanography, tvnrao@nio.org, tvnrao@yahoo.com

Observations of temperature and salinity made during December, 1989 to October, 1990 at four anchor stations have been utilized to describe the thermohaline structure in the Gauthami-Godavari Estuary. The thermohaline distribution is dominated by the presence of two intrusions of cold high saline water into the area at the bottom. The intrusion of cold water (26.90C) of high salinity (32.8x10-3) was maximally developed during April. This intrusion of cold high salinity water during April may be due to upwelling into the estuary. Seasonal variations in river flow caused marked changes in the extent of salinity intrusion resulting in vertical stratification. The upstream limit of the mean position of the salinity intrusion is located about 40 km from the mouth of the Gauthami-Godavari River during low river discharge period. The estuary could be classified as Type A, a highly stratified or salt wedge estuary during the flood season especially in the lower reaches of the estuary and Type B, a partially mixed estuary during the winter and dry seasons. The estuary appears as a line on the stratification-circulation diagram. Stratification is stronger during the flood season than during the winter and dry seasons. The stratification is classed as Type 4 (Salt wedge) during the flood season and Type 1b (Partially mixed) during the winter and dry seasons.
Key words : Salinity intrusion, salt water intrusion, salinity distribution, thermohaline structure, Gauthami-Godavari Estuary, Gauthami-Godavari River



Water Harvesting Based Sustainable Farming System to Alleviate Drought
R.K. Sahu, Dean, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and K.K. Sahu, Professor Department of Soil Science & Agril. Chemistry - Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh)

Micro level water harvesting through farm ponds and shallow dug wells has been proved to be the drought proofing technology in watershed projects in Chhattisgarh and is found to be capable of reducing migration from the area as a result of in-season droughts. Disasters like floods and droughts are the major risk to sustainable agriculture and livelihood of small and marginal farmers. Wide dissemination and adoption of micro level water harvesting can be accelerated by proper identification and evaluation of potential areas for its use. Recent studies have established that on-faSrm reservoirs and shallow dug wells are economically viable and scale-neutral, to store and conserve rainwater to alleviate drought and intensify cropping. This system is generally i.e. it is suitable for large as well as small farm. The present study was undertaken in 4 micro watersheds of 1-2 ha size covering Plains and Plateau areas of Chhattisgarh with the major objectives to investigate the techno-economic feasibility of runoff harvesting and its use for improving the existing rainfed farming systems. In Chhattisgarh, where average rainfed farm size is about 1.79 ha, the average size of SFR is 2000 m3. About 10-12% land is used for the reservoir construction, with 2.6 m depth. It provides supplemental irrigation to entire rice farm (1.5 ha) in wet season and meets the water requirements of about 40% of the farm for growing second crop in post monsoon season. In addition, farmers grow fish in the reservoir. Benefits from the use of reservoir water for rice and fish productions in the two seasons are higher than the investment needed for reservoir construction. Alternative designs of small farm reservoirs were attempted at four levels of probability viz. 80, 75, 60 and 50% of rainfall and runoff. Evapotranspiration of crops were estimated, to work out the water demand of crops for the expected design length of dry spells besides other factors. Similarly alternate designs of drainage system were attempted at four levels of recurrence intervals of daily maximum runoff viz. 1.25, 1.33, 1.66 and 2 years. Crop performance as a result of irrigation from reservoir and shallow dug wells were evaluated. The fish rearing in SFR was introduced to enhance the overall productivity of the production system. Considering water allocation to different crop activity, optimal crop area and water allocation model for maximizing net returns was made. Optimal crop plans were formulated under 3 different cases of crop area constraints with available water and land. The study revealed that the B/C ratio was highest (2.33-2.78) in reservoirs designed at 80% probability of rainfall and runoff and it is very much comparable to irrigated farming. The highest B/C ratio (2.49-2.78) was found in the case when there was no restriction on choice and area of crops, followed by the case (B/C ratio 2.40-2.58) when there was restriction on rice area (at least 15-20%). It was lowest in the third case (B/C ratio 2.33-2.50) where farmers had strong affinity to rice (at least 25-30%). The adoption of technology increased B/C ratio (1.06-1.16 to 2.33-2.78) in reservoirs designed at 80% probability of rainfall and runoff. The cropping intensity increased from 70% to 200% after adoption of this system. The economic analysis conducted at Philippines on similar system, have shown high returns (B/C ratio: 5.1, IRR:177%).
Key words: SFR: Small Farm Reservoir, B/C: Benefit Cost, IRR: Internal Rate of Return.


Natural Resource Management Policy Implications on Disaster Risk Management Practices: Insights from North-East Cambodia
Kathlyn K. H. Sumaylo, Project Manager, IOM Cambodia’s Building Resilience to Natural Hazards in North-East Cambodia, sumaylo.kathlynkissy@gmail.com

Located in the fertile Mekong River Basin, Cambodia is one of the most disaster-prone areas in South-East Asia (IOM, 2010; NCDM PDNA, 2010). The kingdom, considered a Least Developing Country, has very high vulnerability levels in terms of human development indices (NCDM and WFP, 2003a; MoP and WFP, 2003b) and low adaptive capacity of institutions, livelihoods, communities, and ecosystems to natural disasters and climate change (Helmers and Jegillos, 2004; Yusuf and Francisco, 2009).Cambodia suffered from deep social and cultural intergenerational trauma, economic stagnation, large population displacements into the Thai borders and movements outside of the country, and institutional fragmentation as a result of nearly twenty years of civil war from 1975 to 1991. Following the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in October 1991, which gave then State of Cambodia its first comprehensive political settlement, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), was formed under UN Security Resolution No. 745 to “lead peace restoration efforts, to hold free and fair elections leading to a new constitution and to spearhead the rehabilitation of the country” (UN website). The holding of Cambodia’s first democratic elections under the auspices of the UNTAC in 1993 also paved the way for the foundations of decentralized governance. With the completion of the post-conflict repatriation of displaced Cambodians, the multi-donor integrated development project phases, Cambodia Area Rehabilitation and Regeneration Project (CARERE) 1 and 2 and the Partnerships for Local Governance, shifted their focus from emergency post-war recovery and rehabilitation to a developmental approach. This new approach addresses Cambodia’s long-term challenges and needs for institutional governance, planning systems, infrastructure and capacities delivered under the government program SEILA. Natural resource management was a key output under the program’s objective on poverty alleviation, alongside delivery of rural infrastructures and de-mining. Community-based natural resource management was the centrepiece of the SEILA/CARERE’s NRM program in Ratanakiri Province to address communal lands, forests and water resources management (UNDP CARERE website). The program, which was piloted in Ratanakiri Province in the north-eastern region and in two north-western provinces, produced trained Department of Environment staff in forest protection; 12 community forest pilots; formation of two Provincial Land Use Planning committees; and issuance of 7,600 land titles. At the height of the SEILA program implementation, the first policy stipulation for disaster risk management- the National Committee for Disaster Management Policy Paper- was also released in 1995. Insights presented in the paper were drawn from the findings of IOM’s vulnerability assessments to natural hazards in Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri and Stung provinces in 2009 and 2010,


Ecosystem approach to Disaster Reduction: Case of agroecosystems and drought in India.
Divya Agarwal, Accurate Institute of Management & Technology, Applied Sciences & Humanities Department, Greater Noida. 201 306, (NCR) India.
Anil K Gupta, National Institute of Disaster Management (Government of India), New Delhi 110 002, India.


Pressure on natural resources is tremendous to fulfil the demands of exponentially rising population. Biogeochemical processes of clean-up are under variety of obstructions. Ecosystem services are constantly perturbed resulting in frequent occurrences of a list of hazards. Due to increasing tremendous pressure on land and water resource, one of the most vulnerable ecosystems is agro-ecosystems. Major biophysical factors are Drought, excessive evaporation due to global warming, reduced soil fertility and soil erosion and pest attack. Growing High Yielding varieties which are irrigation and chemical fertilizer intensive is an unsustainable proposition with a high frequency of periods of Droughts in India. Modern agricultural techniques also cause various environmental hazards, which in turn reduce the ecosystem resilience. An example of sustainable agro-ecosystem is described in order to reduce the vulnerability of crops towards associated disasters in farms and vice-versa. An approach to healthy ecosystem dynamics in order to ensure positive multidimensional interactions is devised based on the feed-back mechanisms of the components. Depending upon the topographical factors, nutritional requirements of soil, temperature, humidity, rainfall and other abiotic & biotic components, sustainable agroecosystems forms the basics of respective Disaster Reduction Framework with benefits in social, economic and environmental integrity. Mixed-cropping, crop-rotation, contour farming, terrace farming, drip-irrigation, strip cropping, mulching, gully reclamation, horticulture, use of scare-crows, biopesticides, biofertilizers are the traditional innovative techniques. Ecological interactions once strengthened will generate gradual mutual positive feed-back mechanisms, a sustainable approach towards Disaster Reduction.


Role of Water bodies in Climate-Disaster Resilience in Urban Areas
BK Singh and Shiraz A. Wajih, Gorakhpur Environmental Action Group

  The Ramsar convention on wetland 1982, advocate for conserving the wetlands of the country to maintain the ecosystem. The increasing urban growth and escalating demand of land and water has threatened the existence of these water bodies. The Gorakhpur, located in the tarai belt of Himalaya, is naturally endowed with plenty of perennial freshwater ponds and lakes of different dimensions emerged by abandoned channels of rivers. Ramgarh lake, one of the biggest in eastern Uttar Pradesh, located in the south eastern part of the gorakhpur city, plays an important role in the city’s drainage. The waterbodies in the urban area enhance the water holding capacity of the city in the disaster (floods) prone city. The disposal of untreated domestic wastes discharged into such water bodies, solid wastes dumping on its banks, continuous encroachments due to increasing land pressure etc are severely affecting the life of water bodies including Ramgarh lake. Residents of several localities depend on this water for their domestic needs. Drinking and using the polluted water has affected the health of these people. The lake plays an important role in the city’s ecology and provides livelihoods to hundreds of people living around. Ramgarh lake along with 103 other water bodies in the city are dying due to land pressures and short term developmental policies. The lake area has decreased from 1900 acres to 1700 acres in last few decades and pollution level has crossed the permissible limit which severely affected only its flora and fauna but snatches the livelihood of the people living around it. Till the 1980s, there was considerable diversity in the flora and fauna of the lake. Human interference since then has affected both the fish, the fish trade and those dependent on fishing for a living. Only a few fish are saleable. Before 1980, there were 40 species of fish in the lake. In 1990, 28 species were reported but by 2006 just 18 were reported existing. Commercially only three indigenous species, rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Gibelion catla) and magur (Clarius batrachus) and three other hybrid varieties are found. Eight species have disappeared and 14 are on the verge loss. Crabs, prawns and frogs too are disappearing fast thereby affecting the overall ecology of the lake and its sustainability. The present paper argues that to enhance the resilience of cities like Gorakhpur, to climate change and flood impacts, the natural water ecosystems have to be protected and rejuvenated through measures that include proper treatment of effluents (sewage) and solid waste management. The paper also deals with the efforts of mobilized citizens of Gorakhpur to save the lake and the approval of Govt of India programme in this regard.


Agroforestry model to improve economic and ecological viability in degraded tea lands in mid country of Sri Lanka
Prasad Dharmasena and M.S. Bhat, Department of Geography and Regional Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar India

Since the privatisation of most of the estates of the plantation sector in Sri Lanka in 1994s profit making became priority. This led to a rapid deterioration of soil and other natural resources. However an exercise on soil and environment conservation has been begun by both the Tea Research Institute and Plantation Companies in the country and understood the ill effects of neglecting soil conservation, it is one of major reason to decline annual income expected.
  Soil is one of the most vital of our natural resources. Together with water and air, it forms the very basis of life. From the soil come food and other crops and plants that provide medicine, clothing and so many other things we need for daily life. And the retention of soil in its natural condition and habitat prevents erosion, rivers and reservoirs silting and flooding this study was carried out in Watawala tea region of Sri Lanka. It is precious location environmentally and geographically in respect of tea industry.
Otherwise, as a region the environmental impact on the countries of the South Asia by soil erosion and other forms of land degradation is all too familiar. Land degradation causes $10 billion loss to South Asia annually. And soil erosion in marginal tea plantations contributes $ 2.62 billion damage to south Asia annually as a percentage it is 26.2% of total cost of erosion in the region. So, this is not a regional issue, it became today as a global economic and environmental issue. (FAO)
Agro forestry, which has direct and indirect benefits to the user, is not only a soil conservation method, but can be used as a system to increase economic viability of abandoned lands belonged to tea plantations in Sri Lanka. This project has attempted to test the application and viability to mid grown tea region of Sri Lanka where steep slopes are the dominant landform.
In a period where conservation has become a global activity, Sri Lanka should also make its contribution to this global effort. This research attempts to provide the reader with the importance of Agroforestry in controlling soil erosion and environmental management in Sri Lanka by analysing an Agroforestry model which can be seen in Watawala Tea region.
Keywords- soil erosion, economic viability, Agroforestry, tea plantations


Decentralized Solid Waste Management: The sole option of Urban Disaster Resilience
BK Singh and Shiraz Wajih, Gorakhpur Environmental Action Group

The inevitable urban growth will increase the heaps of solid waste in the city. The Gorakhpur city, one of the fastest growing cities in the middle Ganga plain, is experiencing unplanned development of basic urban system and poor waste management. At present the Municipal Corporation Gorakhpur has not operationalized any solid waste management plan in the city. The city generates 350 tonnes of solid waste daily. The whole garbage of the city is either dumped into the low lands or remains on the road. This has led its citizen a tough time in negotiating huge mounds of garbage in going about their daily business. If it increases with the same pace, then it is no doubt that the load of solid waste will be ruinous to all- human, animal and the entire ecosystem. This grim situation is going to be aggravated due to climate change impact including greater flood and water logging resulting in a higher incidence of vector borne diseases.
In the vulnerability assessment conducted under the ACCCRN (Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network) process, it was revealed that the floods related city vulnerability is increasing due to three main inter-related factors. The prevalence of open drains in the city and non availability of solid waste management cause the dumping of solid wastes in the open drains and hence reducing the flow and water holding capacity of drainage channels. The changing climate characteristic are expected to exacerbate the vulnerability of the city by enhancing water logging and vector and water borne diseases.
The present paper, based on the experiences of a pilot project, will contribute to access the various factors that govern the sustenance of decentralized management of urban solid waste management. The community driven -and owned- model of the decentralized solid waste management has proved to be a successful model of community partnership in enhancing the effectiveness of basic services and contributing to reduce the vulnerability of the city. The paper also highlights the parameters about the technology and technical expertise, managerial influence, economic viability, community support including the socio-economic status of the community and the influence of parallel government schemes. Our findings indicated that success and long term sustainability of the model depends on the sustenance parameters to a varying degree. It also seeks out those factors that need to be addressed if the system is replicated in other urban settings.


Disaster management in the Forestry Sector: Issues and Concerns
VRR Singh, Silviculture Division, Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forest Research and Education, P.O. New Forest. Dehradun, 248006; vrrsingh@icfre.org

Exponential increase in human population, shrinkage in available forests and natural resources, splurge in human activities in the field of agriculture, industry and urbanization, has led to prolific habitat loss and degradation, pollution, land use and land cover change, and habitat fragmentation. This has in turn led to a multifaceted disaster in the form of extinction of species and populations, degradation of ecosystems, erosion of genetic diversity and environmental potential, loss of ecosystem services and erosion of support for human societies. With 60% of the Indian landmass prone to earthquakes, 40 million hectares prone to floods, 8% of the total area prone to cyclones and 68% of the area susceptible to drought, India has been placed in zones IV and VI and the most affected are the forests and communities depended on forests. Forests are buffers between the society natural and anthropogenic disasters such as forest fires, epidemics, invasive species, man animal conflict, climate change, earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, cloud bursts, avalanches and droughts. These hazards kill hundreds of people and destroy habitat, leads towards environmental degradation with increasing poverty each year in the area.
In order to raise awareness and take action on interlinking and integrating environmental concerns in disaster management, we need to ask and address a number of critical questions. These range from organization involved, to targets, scales of operation, disseminated messages, delivery mechanisms, intended effects, and partners. The answers to these questions will help us identify the critical lacks, gaps and mismatches, and develop viable policies and strategies to not only increase environmental sustainability, but also reduce the risks involved and enhance the security of people’s lives.
This paper addresses the complexity of issues in implementing disaster management policies in the forestry sector. Issues on methodology and knowledge dissemination have been given special emphasis. Examples have been drawn from field experiences in handling disease epidemics in forestry plantations, flash floods, cloud bursts, forest fires, man animal conflict, earth quakes, landslides and invasive species.
Key words: Forestry disaster management, issues and concerns


Addressing Disasters in Cold Deserts of Indian Himalayas
Gargi Banerji and Sejuti Basu and Abhinaba Chakravarti PRAGYA

To share understanding of mountain environment issues and strategies for DRR in view of increasing degradation of watersheds, and climate change impacts causing increasing intensity / frequency of floods and landslides, water scarcity and livelihood challenges in the cold desert areas in the Himalayas and come out with concrete steps for the way forward.
A four pronged approach involving a) field work across 56 micro watersheds in the Western Himalayas [Kinnaur, Chamba in Himachal Pradesh] and Trans Himalayas [Ladakh in J & K and Lahaul & Spiti in Himachal Pradesh] to collect the necessary data for the study; b) a PRA initiative covering 65 villages to understand the socio-economic issues on the ground; c) a multi-stakeholder workshop involving state agencies, academicians and community participants to gain an understanding of the interplay of various factors; d) Mix of various mitigation interventions carried out across 7 pockets across the target areas.
Based on the study a model relating environment threat and adaptive capacity has been developed. The parameters considered were a) altitude bands; b) eco-degradation; c) anthropogenic pressure; d) resource stress; e) climate change; and f) disaster risk for the threat elements. For the adaptive capacity the parameters considered were a) resource availability; b) ecological balance issues; c) development status. Deliberation by the working groups at the workshop has resulted in a set of actionable elements being identified for a) preparedness; b) adaptation; c) relief and d) recovery. Field trials for a mix of interventions relating to water, fodder, range land regeneration and food security issues have provided the means for scaling and replication. The first hand involvement with the disaster relief efforts during the flash floods in Leh in Aug ’10 and the learning has been integrated.


 

 
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