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Interdiciplinary, Miscellaneous Themes

Sustainable Urban Development: Integrating Land use Planning and Disaster Risk Reduction
Priti Attria 1.Institute of Environmental Studies, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
Anil K Guptab 2 National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi – 110 020
Smita Chaudhrya and Subrat Sharma G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is an important component for achieving sustainable development of cities and making progress towards the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. Despite the growing understanding and acceptance of the importance of DRR and increased disaster response capacities, disasters and in particular the management and reduction of risk continue to pose a global challenge. Disaster risk arises when hazards interact with physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Urbanized areas have higher concentrations of people and human- made structures including industrial facilities, therefore increasing the natural disasters risk and secondary effects such as technological disasters. Hazardous industrial sites have always represented a threat for the community often provoking major accidents, affecting the surrounding urban areas.
To ensure disaster resilient development in cities, there is need for better inter-agency coordination across Ministries and various departments at national, state and local level.
  Convergence of DRR and land use planning is essential not only for managing current risks but also potentially higher risks in future. Effective land management can help to mitigate disasters and reduce risks by avoiding human settlements in hazard prone areas, control of population density and expansion.
Identification of disaster-prone areas as well as alternative sites that are more suitable for development, retrofitting and building of settlements and homes adapted to disaster conditions, relocation of population vulnerable to disasters, engineering measures and construction of hazard-resistant structures are some effective tools and strategies of DRR. Disaster risk considerations should be integrated into sustainable development policies, planning and programming at all levels, with a special emphasis on disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and vulnerability reduction. Database of disasters in the urban context will help in developing feasible multi-hazard risk and vulnerability assessments for urban areas and likely hazard-scenarios. Keeping these points into consideration, this paper discusses about integration of disaster risk reduction and landuse planning for sustainable urban development.
Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction, Urbanization, Vulnerability, Land use planning

To Assess the Challenges Posed by Polluted Groundwater on Public Health – GIS Approach, Kanpur region, Uttar Pradesh
Deepshikha Purwar, Jamshetji Tata Center for Disaster Management, Tata Institute of Social Sciences.

  Kanpur (India) is one among the most polluted city in the world, and the main cause for this pollution is tannery industry, flourishing since late 60s. The waste effluents released by these industries are not only polluting various surface and groundwater sources but are also affecting human health and their socio-economic well being. A hydro geochemical analysis conducted in two such affected villages (study area), found fluoride content in region’s groundwater was 8% more than the permissible limit. Hexavalent chromium, used as basic chrome sulphate in tanneries, which should be nil in drinking water, was found beyond the limits.
  The research paper aims at establishing a relationship between the distribution of hazardous chemicals in groundwater and the occurrence of various health challenges for human health in the study area. The absolute location of study area is (latitude 26.39622, longitude 80.44092), eastern part of Kanpur city. This study shows the incidence of various diseases in the region, on the basis of distribution of hazardous chemicals in the groundwater, by mapping the population affected by bone deformities and skin diseases on the contour maps using kriging, a geostatistical gridding method. Geographical information system and remote sensing images were used to identify, locate, map and analyze the hydro geochemical data and field health data for modeling the hazard zones in the study area, which would be helpful in targeting and planning the remedial measures for health challenges and conservation of groundwater and surface water sources.
Keywords: Kanpur, Public health, Pollution, Geographic information system, Hydro-geochemical

The Treatment of the Liquid Rejects from the Petroleum Refinery of Arzew–Algeria to the Mediterranean Littoral
Mr. Menouar HANAFI, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Science and Technology of ORAN ( ALGERIA ) - hanafi951@yahoo.com

During the process of transformation in the refinery of Arzew, some chemical products are brought into the industrial water treatment, which reaches the long term at their effectiveness, are rejected because they are polluted. This pollution is known on the practical level by the deterioration of the quality of the water rejected into the natural environment and to the sea, which bring to a degradation of the environment and with a reduction of oxygene dissolved in aquatic environment. Large quantities of used water , domestic and industrial , are cast each day, without any treatment, directly to the sea, which can be a serious source of pollution according to the degree of harmful effect of products (used oils, solvents, various muds and dangerous waste). The pollution in Algeria, is the origine thus, of the serious medical dangers to the population, and on the littoral, especially on the tourist structures . ALGERIA currently follows a very severe and rigorous environmental policy to fight the pollution.
In all the production factories, it is required to have stations of processing waste and especially to treat the used water. In the refinery of Arzew, which is on the Mediterranean littoral, the waste water coming from the zones of the production, is treated in two stations , where oils are recovered and the solid waste is eliminated, before this water is rejected to the sea . The station contains two basins, first basin PPI (Parallel Plaques Interceptor) to eliminate the bulky solid waste . The second API basin is a separator by gravity, which removes the free compounds of oil and other solids. In end the water purifyed will be evacuated towards the sea. The refinery of Arzew works for a protection of the environment, and to protect the littoral against the pollution, by the installation of the stations for the purifying of the used water.
KEY WORDS : Pollution , Environment , Purifying , Waste Water .

Risk Perception of Inundation Events in Mumbai
David J. Hallau, SPA Delhi, hallau.david@gmail.com

Risk perception is considered as being crucial for the behaviour towards risks and for the decision to take preventive measures. In order to develop an effective risk management, the understanding of risks and the influencing factors should be known. In this context the issue of differences in risk assessment seems to be important and the role it thereby plays in the respective living conditions of the people.Hence, the present analyses the risk perception of the inundating events in Mumbai in particular. By means of an empirical data acquisition the perception is examined and compared with four different population groups. Thereby, considerable differences in the perception of risks can be determined between the individual groups; which indicates a close connection to their respective living conditions.Therefore, an effective risk management has to recognize these differences in the local perception and respective assessment in individual groups of the risk situations. In order to be able to offer an appropriate assistance in coping with risk events like inundations, it is crucial for the risk management to consider the individual living conditions of every population group.

Correlation of Neotectonic activity with landslide occurrence along Main boundary thrust in Dehradun region
B.C. JOSHI, Institute of Earth Sciences, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi

Significant neotectonic activity has been observed in different parts of synclinal intermontane Dehradun valley. Whole Dehradun region is undergoing strong denudation and contributing large amount of debris which is being transported to the Doon Valley through number of streams. Sahanshai Ashram, Shastradhara and Maldeota Raipur section is marked by number of prominent landslides showing active process along faults. The area is characterised by phyllites, quartzite, blainis, limestone, slates, sandstone and shale. Most of the slides are noticed on the jointed and shattered rocks. However, failure of slope on Doon gravel is due to deformed sediments or action of water on the slope or at toe portion during rainy season. This section is marked by patches of flat surface at varying elevations resting over the Pre Tertiary rocks. These deposits are considered as part of Doon piedmont which has been uplifted due to movement along Main Boundary Thrust.

In Search of Alternatives for Edge Old Disinfection technologies
Mrinal Kanti Ghosh, Director, Dr. Ghosh Laboratories

For more than a century, the addition of chlorine to drinking water has been saving millions of lives by destroying microorganisms in unsafe water sources. Substantial progress in innovation and technology has been made ever since. Nonetheless, disinfection of water, our most precious resource, is still usually accomplished by dosing either hypochlorite solution or chlorine gas into the water. Amid rising quality standards, the increasing magnitude of clean and safe water in the food chain and growing health and environment conscience, a different answer is required to address the challenges of water disinfection in the 21st century. I will discuss here, the alternative technologies and methods along with the most suitable substitute for chlorine. I will focus on delivery systems to generate alternative solutions and outline the modern disinfection proposition vis-à-vis the classical ways of disinfection.

Mapping different types of Conflict related incidents in Manipur using GIS Techniques
Ankit Jaswal, Jamshetji Tata Center for Disaster Management

Becoming an integral part of life in today’s scenario, GIS plays a very important role in understanding the basics of spatial patterns for having an in-depth knowledge and clear understanding. Conflict is a social construct with social disagreement and when taken in political terms, it can refer to war and even to implication, and it can be one of the fields which can be understood with help of GIS and through its revolution and struggle for independence. It’s a very relative term, dependent on contextual mechanism.
Dealing with the types of conflict incidents in northeast region of India, GIS as a tool helps us to understand the reasons behind the origin of conflict in the region and the patterns in which the types of incidents took place from one district to another in the state of Manipur.
As this research is a pilot project to develop a GIS based methodology to study the conflict affected regions in north-eastern region of India, we took Manipur state as our research area, because it is one of the most severely affected states of northeast for the past few years. The purpose of the study is to understand how conflict can be studied utilizing GIS.
Keywords: GIS, Conflict, Northeast, and Manipur.


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